Breast cancer patients who are treated with chemotherapy show a huge variability in their response. Chemotherapy often results in undesirable side effects that can reduce quality of life and lead to life threating complications. Therefore, identifying patients who will benefit from chemotherapy remains a major research challenge. The p53 tumour suppressor plays a key role in the response to chemotherapy and is frequently mutated in many cancers.
Background : The RNA helicase p68 is an important transcriptional coactivator of several proteins that play key roles in cancer development. p68 is aberrantly expressed/modified in several cancers, suggesting that alteration in p68 expression/function may be key events in tumour development.
Background: Cyclin subunits, in combination with their Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) domains, regulate many aspects of cell cycle progression, including DNA replication (Cyclin A2) and cell division (Cyclin B1). Cyclin A2 and Cyclin B1 share the same catalytic subunits, Cdk1 and Cdk2, therefore it is difficult to separate their functions because Cdk1 or Cdk2 inhibitors affect multiple Cyclin/Cdk complexes at once. For example, Cyclin B/Cdk1 is known to stimulate mitotic entry but Cyclin A2/Cdk1 could well play an important undiscovered role.
Wnt signalling was first discovered in tumour models and has been recognized as a key regulator in cancer for several decades. This has prompted a number of researchers and pharmaceutical companies to develop Wnt-modulating drugs for cancer treatment. However, we are still learning about the complex and often context-dependent effects of WNT signalling in differing tumour types, so it is important to understand the role of Wnt signalling in individual cancers before Wnt-modulating therapeutics can be used to treat patients.
Tumour heterogeneity, as measured in various imaging modalities including MRI, has been reported to useful in prognostication and in the identification of patients who will achieve a complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Heterogeneity considers microscopic image ‘texture’, by mapping and modelling grey-level distributions of individual pixels within regions of interest; textural analysis (TA). It has been hypothesised that TA indirectly links to lesion pathology via tissue structure, which influences the contrast in the final MR image.
The DNA Damage Response (DDR) is a major component of a cells defence against disease. It serves to recognize and repair DNA damage, regulate gene expression, control cell-cycle progression and where necessary, to promote programmed cell death.
Background: The term ‘Periodontal disease’ is applied to a range of pathological changes to periodontal tissue. Our best understanding of this multi-factorial disease places a key role on microbial communities and central to these communities are Fusiform bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum (FN). These long filamentous organisms are unparalleled in their ability to adhere to a range of different oral bacteria, and have been shown to invade epithelial cells (Edwards et al., 2006). Recent in vivo studies have also demonstrated invasion of the placenta and colon tumours.
TGF-beta can act as both a potent tumour promoter and tumour suppressor in a context dependent fashion. During cancer progression tumour cells can modify their response to TGF-beta from anti-proliferative to pro-tumourigenic whereby they can utilise TGF-beta to promote tumour cell proliferation, survival, motility, invasion, intravasation, extravasation, metastatic colonisation and promotion of cancer stem cell straits.
p68 (DDX5) is a prototypic member of the DEAD box family of RNA helicases that can unwind RNA in a context-selective and ATP-dependent manner. p68 is a multi-functional protein known to be involved in several cellular processes requiring manipulation of RNA structures, including transcription and processing of pre-mRNA, rRNA, and miRNA.
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are chemical modifications that play a key role in protein regulation, as they can regulate activity, localization and interaction with other proteins, or DNA. The relevance of PTMs in cancer development is well established.